Knowles, G 2014, ‘Employers on notice over visas’. In August 2005, the relevant trafficking legislation underwent significant reform and a range of new offences were created under the Criminal Code Amendment (Trafficking in Persons Offences) Act … In one case, a Thai woman was subjected to laboring in her husband’s market … Similar to the proposed bill in Victoria, the Act establishes a mandatory labour hire licensing scheme for operators in Queensland to protect labour hire workers from exploitation. The number of people trafficked into Australia is unknown. Available from: Industrial Relations Act 1979 – Sect 7, “employee […] does not include any person engaged in domestic service in a private home unless — (e) more than 6 boarders or lodgers are therein received for pay or reward; or (f) the person so engaged is employed by an employer, who is not the owner or occupier of the private home, but who provides that owner or occupier with the services of the person so engaged”, Available from: https://www.slp.wa.gov.au/legislation/statutes.nsf/main_mrtitle_454_homepage.html. Human trafficking is the trade of humans at a large scale. 2017. The Commonwealth laws that deal with human trafficking offences in Australia are the Crimes Act 1914 (Cth) and the Criminal Code 1995 (Cth). As a result of the findings of the state of Victoria’s “Inquiry into the Labour Hire Industry and Insecure Work”, the Victorian government introduced the Labour Hire Licensing Bill 2017 in December 2017, seeking to protect labour hire workers from being exploited and underpaid. What is human trafficking? It’s an estimated US$150 billion industry, with almost a third of profits generated in wealthy industrialised countries like Australia. Once it has received Royal Assent, the bill will amend the Fair Work Act 2009 to impose stricter penalties on fraudulent employers and to extend the powers of the Fair Work Ombudsman to investigate and gather evidence of potential workplace breaches.71 While the Act was supported by unions and NGOs, it was regarded as falling short of adding additional protections for workers and whistle blowers, which would further incentivise the reporting of workplace violations.72 The new provisions target growing concerns in the Australian community about the exploitation of vulnerable workers, particularly migrant workers and workers in the franchise sector.73 In October 2016, the Australian government established a cross-agency “Migrant Workers’ Taskforce” as part of the government’s commitment to tackle the exploitation of vulnerable migrant workers.74, In most Australian states and territories, domestic workers, including migrant domestic workers, are covered by the Fair Work Act. Ten of those individuals were convicted of slavery offences, six of servitude offences, and four of human trafficking offences, two of which involved trafficking of children. By making corporate responsibility data accessible, comparable and free for all, the organisation aims to provide society with the tools it needs to encourage companies to respond to social and environmental challenges. Human trafficking is a devastating criminal atrocity that forcefully deprives a person of their freedom for the material benefit of another. Estimates given to a 2004 parliamentary inquiry into sexual servitude in Australia ranged from 300 to 1000 trafficked women annually. Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources, 2017. In 2002, Australia helped establish the Bali Process on People Smuggling, Trafficking in Persons and Related Transnational Crime, which it co-chairs with Indonesia. To date, over 400 statements have been assessed by university students at Columbia University, ESCP Europe Business School, Johns Hopkins University, University of Nottingham, and the University of Western Australia. Talitha Kum is the International Network of Consecrated Life Against Trafficking in Persons. Australia is a destination country for trafficked persons. Senate Standing Committee on Education and Employment 2016. As Australia opens up to free trade markets with weakened worker protections in their home countries, the demand for cheap labour, products and services will continue to intensify. Implement a support services model that is tailored to the specific needs of individuals impacted by or facing forced marriage, including social and accommodation support services. The Attorney-General’s Department (now Department of Home Affairs) held a national consultation process with business and civil society to refine the legislative model proposed by the government.106 The Australian government has committed to introduce a modern slavery bill to Parliament by mid-2018 with the aim to pass legislation by end of 2018.107, The 2018 New South Wales Modern Slavery Act also includes supply chain transparency provisions, requiring commercial organisations with an annual turnover of AU$50 million to release annual statements on the actions they are taking to ensure their goods and services are not a product of supply chains in which modern slavery is taking place. Human trafficking not only involves sex and labor, but people are also trafficked for organ harvesting. As Australia opens up to free trade markets with weakened worker protections in their home countries, the demand for cheap labour, products and services will continue to intensify. Human trafficking and slavery are against the law. The Australian government has committed to introduce a modern slavery bill to Parliament by mid-2018 with the aim to pass legislation by end of 2018.66, In June 2018, the New South Wales Parliament approved the New South Wales 2018 Modern Slavery Act. An effective approach to eliminating slavery in all of its forms places the needs, experiences and human rights of vulnerable workers at the centre of its approach. Those that enter Australia on a formal domestic worker visa program are generally tied to their employer through their visa which can also increase risk of exploitation.58, Young people aged between 16 to 18 years are the most at risk of child, early, or forced marriage in Australia, with most cases involving family members.59 Current policy responses to forced marriage have grown out of the national anti-trafficking response in Australia, which place an emphasis on criminal justice. 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